From-The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament
R.H. Charles, Oxford: The Clarendon Press
Section I. Chapters I-XXXVI
Enoch Links: Preface, Symbols, 1 Enoch chapters 1 - 60, 1 Enoch chapters 61 - 105, 2 Enoch
Enoch was in fact an angel, or he couldn't have lived as long as he did - 366 years (3284-3017 BC.) - and impacted on the human consciousness hologram to help humanity evolve within that timeline.
They had spiritual knowledge which gave the powers of communication, teleportation, and the understanding we seek today about the truth of our creation and where it is all headed now in the second decade of the 21st century. It's all myth, math, and metaphor, brought forth into our timeline to understand the nature of Reality.
Enoch was also Thoth, Hermes, Zoroaster, Metatron, among others who wrote books about the Sacred Knowledge of Creation. In the Qur'an, Enoch is called Idris. In the bible he is sometimes called Akhnookh. As with all of these enigmatic teachers, the real truth remains hidden within the illusion of reality, soon to be discovered. Enoch is a figure in the Generations of Adam. Enoch is described as Adam's greatx4 grandson (through Seth), the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and the great-grandfather of Noah.
The text reads - uniquely in the Generations - that Enoch "walked with God: and he was not; for God took him," (Genesis 5:22-29) suggesting he did not experience the mortal death ascribed to Adam's other descendants. Despite the brief descriptions of him, Enoch is one of the main two focal points for much of the 1st millennium BC Jewish mysticism, notably in the Book of Enoch. Additionally, Enoch is important in some Christian denominations: He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church on July 26. He also features in the Latter Day Saint movement. Enoch appears in Genesis as the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs.
The function of the Patriarchs is primarily to mark the passage of immense periods of time: each lives for several centuries, has a son, lives more centuries, and dies. Enoch is unique in the series on two counts: his life-span of 365 years is extremely short in the context of his long-lived peers, and he does not die, the Bible noting rather that "he was not, for God took him." (Genesis 5:22-29). In the Septuagint the phrase "God took him" is rendered with the Greek verb metatithemi a common Greek verb for moving from one place to another. Sirach 44:16 states, "Enoch pleased God and was translated into paradise that he may give repentance to the nations." In classical Rabbinical literature, there are divergent opinions of Enoch.
After Christianity and Judaism had separated, the prevailing view regarding Enoch was that of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, which thought of Enoch as a pious man, taken to Heaven, and receiving the title of Safra rabba (Great scribe). However, while Christianity was separating from Judaism, the Jewish view of Enoch was he was the only pious man of his time and was taken away before he would become corrupted. According to Rashi [from Genesis Rabba], Enoch was a righteous man, but he could easily be swayed to return to do evil. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, hastened and took him away and caused him to die before his time. For this reason, Scripture changed the wording in the account of his demise and wrote, and he was no longer in the world to complete his years.
Among the minor Midrashim, esoteric attributes of Enoch are expanded upon. In the Sefer Hekalot, Rabbi Ishmael is described as having visited the 7th Heaven, where he meets Enoch, who claims that earth had, in his time, been corrupted by the demons Shammazai, and Azazel, and so Enoch was taken to Heaven to prove that God was not cruel. Similar traditions are recorded in Sirach. Later elaborations of this interpretation treated Enoch as having been a pious ascetic, who, called to mix with others, preached repentance, and gathered (despite the small number of people on Earth) a vast collection of disciples, to the extent that he was proclaimed king. Under his wisdom, peace is said to have reigned on earth, to the extent that he is summoned to Heaven to rule over the sons of God. In a parallel with Elijah, in sight of a vast crowd begging him to stay, he ascends to Heaven on a horse.
Enoch is often confused with Enos. However, Enos is grandson to Adam (Genesis 5:5-6), and great-great-grandfather of Enoch (Genesis 5:9-18). The New Testament contains 3 references to Enoch. The first is a brief mention in Luke's genealogy of the ancestors of Jesus (Luke 3:37).
The second mention is where the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews writes, "By faith Enoch was transferred, that he should not see death, and was not found, because God had transferred him; for before his transference he had the witness that he had pleased God well." (Hebrews 11:5)
The third mention is in the Epistle of Jude (1:14-15) where the author attributes to "Enoch, the Seventh from Adam" a passage unknown in the Old Testament. The quotation is believed by most modern scholars to be taken from 1 Enoch 1:9 which exists in Greek, in Ethiopic, as part of the Ethiopian Orthodox canon, and also in Aramaic among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Though the same scholars recognize that 1 Enoch 1:9 itself is a midrash of the words of Moses "he came from the ten thousands of holy ones" from Deuteronomy 33:2. The introductory phrase "Enoch, the Seventh from Adam" is also found in 1 Enoch (1 En. 60:8), though not in the Old Testament. In the New Testament this Enoch prophesies "to" ungodly men, that God shall come with His holy ones to judge and convict them (Jude 1:14-15). Early Christianity contains various traditions concerning the "translation" of Enoch. Regarding the quotation in Jude, most of early Christianity considered it an independent quotation pre-dating the flood. Regarding the Book of Enoch itself Origen, Jerome and Augustin mention it, but as of no authority. Justin, Athenagoras, Irenaeus, Clemens Alexandrinus, Lactantius, and others borrowed an opinion out of this book of Enoch, that the angels had connection with the daughters of men, of whom they had offspring ('the giants of the past').
Tertullian, in several places, speaks of this book with esteem; and would persuade us, that it was preserved by Noah during the deluge. According to the Figurists (a group of Jesuit missionaries mainly led by Joachim Bouvet into China at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century and based on ideas of Matteo Ricci 1552 to 1610), Fu Xi in China's ancient history is actually Enoch. Enoch is not counted as a saint in Roman Catholic tradition, though Enoch has a saints day, July 26, in the Armenian Apostolic Church.
The "St. Enoch" in the place name St. Enoch's Square, Glasgow, is a corruption from the site of a medieval chapel to Saint Teneu, the legendary mother of Saint Mungo, and unconnected with Enoch. Enoch is revered in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and the Enochic texts Jubilees and 1 Enoch regarded as the 13th and 14th books, respectively, of the Tewahedo Old Testament canon. Most churches, including the Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Protestant churches, do not accept the books. Some Evangelical commentators consider Enoch to be one of the Two Witnesses in the Book of Revelation due to the fact that he did not die according to Genesis 5:24. Two televangelists holding this view, for example, are Pastor John Hagee of Christians United for Israel and Hebrew Roots Bible teacher Perry Stone. Among the Latter Day Saint movement and particularly in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Enoch is viewed as having founded an exceptionally righteous city, named Zion, in the midst of an otherwise wicked world. This view is encountered in the Mormon scripture (see Standard Works), the Pearl of Great Price and the Doctrine and Covenants, which states that not only Enoch, but the entire peoples of the city of Zion, were taken off this earth without death, because of their piety. (Zion is defined as "the pure in heart" and this city of Zion will return to the earth at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.)
The Doctrine and Covenants further states that Enoch prophesied that one of his descendants, Noah, and his family, would survive a Great Flood and thus carry on the human race and preserve the Gospel. The Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price has several chapters that give an account of Enoch's preaching, visions and conversations with God. In these same chapters are details concerning the wars, violence and natural disasters in Enoch's day, and notable miracles performed by Enoch. The Book of Moses is itself an excerpt from Joseph Smith's translation of the Bible, which is published in full, complete with these chapters concerning Enoch, by Community of Christ, as the Holy Scriptures/Inspired Version of the Bible, where it appears as part of the Book of Genesis. D&C 104:24 (CofC) / 107:48-49 (LDS) states that Adam ordained Enoch to the higher priesthood (now called the Melchizedek, after the great high priest) at age 25, that he was 65 when Adam blessed him, and he lived 365 years after that until he was translated, so making him 430 years old when that occurred. Additionally in LDS theology, Enoch is implied to be the scribe who recorded Adam's blessings and prophecies at Adam-ondi-Ahman, as recorded in D&C 107:53-57 (LDS) / D&C 104:29b (CofC). Enoch called the people back to his forefathers' religion, but only a few listened to him, while the majority turned away. According to the Talmud Selections (pp. 18-21) when the people went astray, Enoch who lived a pious life in seclusion was given prophethood. He came among the people and by his sermons and speeches made the people give up the idolatry and obey the Command of God. Enoch ruled them and during his reign there was peace and justice. Enoch and his followers left Babylon for Egypt. There he carried on his mission, calling people to what is just and fair, teaching them certain prayers and instructing them to fast on certain days and to give a portion of their wealth to the poor. Enoch allegedly taught the sons of men the art of building cities, and enacted some admirable laws. He discovered the knowledge of the Zodiac, and the course of the Planets; and he pointed out to the sons of men, that they should worship God, that they should fast, that they should pray, that they should give alms, votive offerings, and tenths. He reprobated abominable foods and drunkenness, and appointed festivals for sacrifices to the Sun, at each of the Zodiacal Signs. Enoch's name signified in the Hebrew, Initiate or Initiator.
The legend of the columns, of granite and brass or bronze, erected by him, is probably symbolical. That of bronze, which survived the flood, is supposed to symbolize the mysteries, of which Masonry is the legitimate successor from the earliest times the custodian and depository of the great philosophical and religious truths, unknown to the world at large, and handed down from age to age by an unbroken current of tradition, embodied in symbols, emblems, and allegories. His teachings had a substantial Zoroastrian influence on Judaism when Jewish exiles were exposed to the Persian religion during the Babylonian captivity. Some Jews adopted Enochian tradition in Babylon during the Exile and brought it back to Canaan when Cyrus gave them leave to Return.
The Enochian Jews were detested by the priesthood in Jerusalem, and they were forced to flee into the desert before 300 BCE. Naturally, they supported the Maccabees during the uprising of 165 BCE. The Enochians at Qumran updated the text to include Judah the Hammer in the big story. The last of the Essene stragglers buried the secret book in Cave IV at Qumran c.70 CE. The urban Christians and Jews of the Near East rejected it. The authors of the Apocalypse rewrote and retitled it, but they didn't understand the heptadic structure of the original lines, the arrangement of sevens. Only the students of the Merkabah in Babylonia possessed the key to the Enochian mystery.
The Books of Enoch are 3 extensive apocryphal works are attributed to Enoch: 1st Book of Enoch, or simply the Book of Enoch, an apocryphal book in the Ethiopic Bible that is usually dated between the third century BC and the first century AD. It was discovered in Abyssinia in 1773 by a Scottish explorer named James Bruce. In 1821 The Book of Enoch was translated by Richard Laurence and published in a number of successive editions, culminating in the 1883 edition. Enoch acts as a scribe, writing up a petition on behalf of the fallen angels, or fallen ones, to be given to a higher power for ultimate judgment.
Christianity adopted some ideas from Enoch, including the Final Judgment, the concept of demons, the origins of evil and the fallen angels, and the coming of a Messiah and ultimately, a Messianic kingdom. The Book of Enoch was removed from the Bible and banned by the early church. Copies of it were found to have survived in Ethiopia, and fragments in Greece and Italy. These recount how Enoch is taken up to Heaven and is appointed guardian of all the celestial treasures, chief of the archangels, and the immediate attendant on God's throne. He is subsequently taught all secrets and mysteries and, with all the angels at his back, fulfils of his own accord whatever comes out of the mouth of God, executing His decrees.
Enoch was also seen as the inventor of writing, and teacher of astronomy and arithmetic, all three reflecting the interpretation of his name as meaning initiated. Much esoteric literature like the 3rd Book of Enoch identifies Enoch as the Metatron, the angel which communicates God's word. In consequence, Enoch was seen, by this literature, and the ancient kabbala of Jewish mysticism, as having been the one which communicated God's revelation to Moses, in particular, the dictator of the Book of Jubilees.
The First Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, traditionally ascribed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. It is not part of the biblical canon as used by Jews, apart from Beta Israel. It is regarded as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Eritrean Orthodox Church, but no other Christian group. The Book of Enoch almost made it into the Bible but was then rejected as "apocryphal", even though Enoch and the book itself are mentioned and referred to several times in the Bible. The only people who accept the book as an official part of their holy scriptures are Ethiopian Jews and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and a few more obscure religious groups around the world. Official sources say the book was written 300 B.C. but since it is ascribed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, some speculate that it was written before the great flood. Western scholars believe that its older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) date from about 300 BC, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC. It is wholly extant only in the Ge'ez language, with Aramaic fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls and a few Greek and Latin fragments.
There is no consensus among scholars about the original language: some propose Aramaic, others Hebrew, while the probable thesis, according to E. Isaac, is that 1 Enoch, like Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew. Ethiopian scholars generally hold that Ge'ez is the language of the original from which the Greek and Aramaic copies were made, pointing out that it is the only language in which the complete text has yet been found. A short section of 1 Enoch (1 En 1:9) is quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14-15), and is there attributed to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1 En 60:8). It is argued that all the writers of the New Testament were familiar with it and were influenced by it in thought and diction. The Book of Enoch answers several mysteries. The age old question "why didnt the Gods leave evidence of their stay" is answered by the very policy of non-interference.
The question of why certain knowledge is kept secret is answered by the "so that you can discover it out of your own power". The book also somewhat confirms legends and tales of an advanced people that existed before a great flood that were destroyed because things went bad. Of course, the entire tale is indirectly confirmed by other ancient sources...Sumeran, Chinese and Pre-Columbian to name a few. The first part of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim. The remainder of the book describes Enoch's visits to heaven in the form of travels, visions and dreams, and his revelations. The book consists of five quite distinct major sections: The Book of the Watchers (1 Enoch 1 - 36): The first part of the book is about "The Watchers", a group of "angel"s sent to earth to watch over humans. 200 of those angels committed transgression by having sex with humans, creating a hybrid race called the Nephilim. Of the Nephilim it is said that they were giants and savages that endangered and pillaged humanity. It is said that the "Watchers" taught humans reading, writing, weaponry, cosmetics, sorcery, about the stars, meteorology, and many other arts and that this was problematic because it robbed humans the opportunity to discover the arts by themselves. They "revealed the eternal secrets which were preserved for heaven, which men were striving to learn." the book says. "The Gods" were not pleased about the intervention of "The Watchers" in human affairs. (The same story of interventionists vs. non-interventionists is told in Greek Mythology, Sumerian Mythology as well as various Asian myths about the old days of mankind).
Apparently there were also experiments in cross-breeding between animals and humans going on. "And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood." And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being shed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. Disgusted by all this, "the Gods" decided to have a Great Flood to rid the earth of the Nephilim and other ghastly creatures (according to the Book of Enoch. The Bible says that the Nephilim are bound "in the valleys of earth" - beneath the earth?- until Judgement day). Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spoke, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech, and said to him: Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself!" and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world." Another book in which the angels, sent by God, are referred to as "The Watchers" is the pseudepigraphic "Book of Jubilees", the biblical book of Daniel and throughout ancient Jewish legend and folklore. In the Book of Enoch "The Watchers" only became fallen angels after mating with humans and teaching them forbidden and secret knowledge which they, according to Enoch, were not ready for. In Genesis we read the following about the Nephilim: When men began to multiply on earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw how beautiful the daughters of man were, and so they took for their wives as many of them as they chose.
Then the Lord said: "My spirit shall not remain in man forever, since he is but flesh. His days shall comprise one hundred and twenty years." At that time the Nephilim appeared on earth, after the sons of God had intercourse with the daughters of man, who bore them sons. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown. (Genesis 6:1-4) The relevance of the first Book of Enoch was recently strengthened when, among the Dead Sea Scrolls the "Book of Giants" was found, dated to 200 B.C. and talking about a time before the great worldwide flood when giants and dragons fought each other. Some of the names mentioned in "The Book of Giants" are also mentioned in the Talmud. So in summary a group of angels were sent to earth as watchers. Since they had sex with humans we must assume that they had bodies, that they were present in physical form. Possibly the "higher ups" were non-physical or celestial or ultraterrestrial whereas the "Watchers" were what we would call humanoids, extraterrestrials.A part of those angels became "fallen angels" because they intermixed with humans, intervened in their affairs and taught them things they were supposed to learn by themselves. As a result of the sins a race of savage cannibalistic beasts that ate flesh and drank blood arose and turned paradise into a nightmarish place. Whoever had created earth decided to have it destroyed with a Giant Flood which only a few species should survive. Some beings fled or were locked into the "Underworld" which would either be hell on the astral-planes or dwellings below the surface of the earth or both. Apparently humankind are like children that need to be watched over by "The Watchers" but without too much intervention because it would stifle their maturity. Today, many thousands of years later, the non-intervention policy is apparently still ongoing (this time more successfully) with a few ocassion all interferences happening. Book of Parables of Enoch (1 Enoch 37 - 71) (Also called the Similitudes of Enoch) The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and eschatology, concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also of the evil kings of the earth. The Book of Parables uses the expression "Son of Man" for the eschatological protagonist, who is also called Righteous One, Chosen One, and Messiah, and narrates his pre-existence and his sitting on the throne of glory in the final judgment. Astronomical Book (1 Enoch 72 - 82) (Also called the Book of the Heavenly Luminaries or Book of Luminaries) Four fragmentary editions of the Astronomical Book were found at Qumran, 4Q208-211. 4Q208 and 4Q209 have been dated to the beginning of the 2nd century BC, providing a terminus ante quem for the Astronomical Book of the 3rd century BC, if not earlier.
The fragments found in Qumran also include material not contained in the later versions of the Book of Enoch. This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament, as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel, and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect. The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem. The year was composed from 364 days, divided in 4 equal seasons of 91 days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of 30 days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly 52 weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday, which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis, the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created. It is not known how they used to reconcile this calendar with the tropical year of 365.24 days (at least seven suggestions have been made), and it is not even sure if they felt the need to adjust it. Book of Dream Visions (1 Enoch 83 - 90) (Also called the Book of Dreams) Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt, is dated by most to Maccabean times (about 163-142 BC).
According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church it was written before the Flood. The Epistle of Enoch (1 Enoch 91 - 108) 2nd Book of Enoch, (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a pseudepigraphic (a text whose claimed authorship is unfounded) of the Old Testament. It is usually considered to be part of the Apocalyptic literature. Late 1st century CE is the dating often preferred. The text has been preserved in full only in Slavonic, but in 2009 it was announced that Coptic fragments of the book had been identified. Greek is indicated as the language behind the Slavonic version. It is not regarded as scripture by Jews or any Christian group. It was rediscovered and published at the end of 19th century. Most scholars consider 2 Enoch to be composed by an unknown Jewish sectarian group, while some authors think it is a 1st century Christian text. A very few scholars consider it a later Christian work. This article discusses 2 Enoch. It is distinct from the Book of Enoch, known as 1 Enoch. There is also an unrelated 3 Enoch. The numbering of these texts has been applied by scholars to distinguish the texts from one another.
The 3rd Book of Enoch, a Kabbalistic Rabbinic text in Hebrew usually dated to the fifth century AD. 3 Enoch is an Old Testament Apocryphal book. 3 Enoch purports to have been written in the 2nd century CE, but its origins can only be traced to the 5th century. Other names for 3 Enoch include "The Third Book of Enoch", "The Book of the Palaces", "The Book of Rabbi Ishmael the High Priest" and "The Revelation of Metatron". Modern scholars describe this book as pseudepigraphal, as it says it is written by Rabbi Ishmael who became a 'high priest' after visions of ascension to Heaven, 90 AD - 135 AD. Rabbi Ishmael is a leading figure of Merkabah literature. The name Sefer Hekhalot (Hekhalot meaning Palaces/Temples), along with its proposed author, places this book as a member of Hekalot/Merkabah lore. Its contents suggest that 3 Enoch's contents and ideas are newer than those shown in other Merkabah texts. The book does not contain Merkabah hymns, it has unique layout and adjuration. All these facts make 3 Enoch unique not just among Merkabah writings, but also within the writings of Enoch. 3 Enoch contains a number of Greek and Latin words. This book, unlike 1 Enoch, appears to have been originally written in Hebrew. There are a number of indications suggesting that the writers of 3 Enoch had knowledge of, and most likely read, 1 Enoch.